End-stage renal disease is characterized by a 90% loss of kidney function - and once diagnosed, the only life-saving remedy is a kidney transplant or permanent kidney dialysis. Causes of CKD, The most common causes of CKD are diabetic nephropathy, hypertension and glomerulonephritis.
Cross-section of a Human Kidney The vital structural components of a kidney are enclosed in a smooth but tough fibrous capsule called renal capsule . Inside this capsule, two distinct regions can be observed: a pale outer region called renal cortex, and a dark inner portion called renal medulla .
A Clinical Scenario: Are Kidney Stones and Hypertension Connected? The Cross-Sectional Study The Logic The Structure Pros and Cons Conducting a Cross-Sectional Study Steps in building a cross-sectional study Practical Issues Discussion of clinical example The data set The questions Confounding and interaction Data analysis issues Suggested Reading
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A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi. The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis.
Coronal Section of the Kidney. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of the superior posterior abdominal wall. Its lateral border is convex while its medial border is concave. The medial concavity is the point at which the renal neurovascular structures enter and leave the kidneys.
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Urinary Renal System of Human Body Anatomy with all parts including adrenal gland artery and vein supply and cross section of kidney bladder at anatomical abdomen area diagram The lithotriptor attempts to break up kidney stones using an externally applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse